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Insect Management in Sweetpotato

Growers often turn to pesticides known as insecticides when looking to manage insect pests in sweetpotato. There are many insecticides that are available for commercial use, but there are many factors that must be considered before application. Factors that are important to consider include the insect species, target life stage, life cycle, insecticide application time, and amount applied.

Although insecticides effectively reduce or disrupt pest populations, the number of OMRI-listed insecticides registered for use against sweetpotato pests is currently limited. Due to these limitations, an integrated pest management (IPM) program that integrates the use of insecticides and other pest limitation tactics must be implemented. Commonly implemented tactics include crop rotations and insect-resistant cultivars (Jennings et al., 2019). For organic sweetpotato production, growers must rely on these tactics which focus more so on longer-term reductions in insect populations. The aim of these tactics is to reduce insect populations to minimize insect damage risk and prevent economic losses.

A common insect pest in sweetpotato, the sweetpotato weevil (Cylas formicarius.)
Sweetpotato Weevil” by Graham Wise / CC BY 2.0

Insects feed on all parts of the sweetpotato plant, from the foliage to the storage and fibrous roots underneath the soil. Of those insects, those that feed on the above-ground plant matter, such as the leaves or stems, do not often cause economic damage unless their populations are high (Jennings et al., 2019). Generally, feeding on the foliage does not impact the yield or quality of the storage roots below the surface, unless their populations are very high, which can impact yield through feeding-induced plant stress. However, insect pests that feed on the storage roots and fibrous roots can cause significant economic damage. Damages can include the reduction of yield and quality through feeding-induced plant stress or direct damage to the storage root itself.

Of those that feed on sweetpotato plants, most insect species fall under the umbrella of beetles. Other insect species include flies, hemipterans, and butterflies/moths. The table below specifies the stage of plant development in which specific insect pests feed.

Table 1. The below table has been adapted from the MSU Extension 2022 Insect Control Guide for Agronomic Crops.

Stage of Plant DevelopmentInsect Pests
Plant bedsSweetpotato weevils, flea beetles, aphids, whiteflies
Planting to runner developmentWireworms, white grubs, root worms, flea beetle adults and larvae, whitefringed beetle larvae, cutworms, thrips
Canopy closure to full root developmentWireworms, root worms, white grubs, flea beetle larvae, caterpillars
Root maturity to harvestWireworms, root worms, white grubs, flea beetle larvae, sugarcane beetles, caterpillars
Post-harvest storageSweetpotato weevils, sugarcane beetles, fruit flies

Below are tables that detail insecticide application protocols specific to each state associated with the SweetARMOR project.

North Carolina

Table 2. The below table has been adapted from the 2022 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual.

Sweetpotato     
Crop InsectInsecticide, Mode of Action Code, and FormulationAmount of Formulation Per AcreRestricted Entry Interval (REI)Pre Harvest Interval (PHI) (Days)Precautions and Remarks
Aphids, Leafhopper, WhiteflyAphids, leafhoppers, and whiteflies are rarely a problem.
acetamiprid, MOA 4A
(Assail) 30SG
1.5 to 4 oz12 hrs7Do not make more than 4 applications per season. Do not apply more frequently than once every 7 days. Use 2.5 to 4 ounces for aphids.
clothianidin, MOA 4A
(Belay) 2.13 SC
Soil application:
Foliar application:

9 to 12 fl oz
2 to 3 fl oz
12 hrs
21
14
Soil application as an in-furrow or sidedress application. For sidedress applications, immediately cover with soil.
flonicamid, MOA 29
(Beleaf) 50 SG
2 to 2.8 oz12 hrs7
flupyradifurone, MOA 4D
(Sivanto Prime) 1.67
7.0 to 14.0 fl oz4 hrs77For aphids and leafhopper use 7.0 to 10.5 fluid ounces, for whitefly use 10.5 to 14.0 fluid ounces.
imidacloprid, MOA 4A
(Admire Pro) 4.6 F
(various) 1.6 F
Foliar:
1.2 fl oz
3.5 fl oz

Soil:
4.4 to 10.5 fl oz
12 hrs7



60
Two foliar applications may be needed to control heavy populations. Allow 5 to 7 days between applications.

The Admire Pro 24C label includes an in-furrow or side dress application 45 days after planting at 4.4 to 10.5 fl oz/acre.
pymetrozine, MOA 9B
(Fulfill) 50 WDG
2.75 to 5.5 oz12 hrs14
spirotetramat MOA 23
(Movento) 2 SC
4 to 5 fl oz24 hrs7Will not control leafhopper. Requires surfactant.
thiamethoxam, MOA 4A
(Actara) 25 WDG
3 oz14Two applications of Actara may be needed to control heavy populations. Allow 7 to 10 days between applications. Do not exceed a total of 6 ounces of Actara per crop per season.
Armyworm, Looper, Corn earworm, HornwormDamaging armyworm and earworm infestations may occur in August or September. If significant infestations are present on foliage during harvest, larvae may feed on exposed roots.
chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28
(Coragen) 1.67 SC
3.5 to 7.5 fl oz4 hrs1Foliar application only on sweetpotato.
chlorantraniliprole and lambda-cyfluthrin premix, MOA 28 and 3
(Besiege)
6 to 9 fl oz24 hrs14Treat when a combination of moth pests and cucumber beetles are above threshold.
methoxyfenozide, MOA 18
(Intrepid) 2 F
6 to 10 fl oz4 hrs7
novaluron, MOA 15
(Rimon) 0.83 EC
9 to 12 fl oz12 hrs14Do not make more than 2 applications per crop per season.
spinosad MOA 5
(Blackhawk)
2.25 to 3.5 oz4 hrs77
spinetoram, MOA 5
(Radiant) 1 SC
6 to 8 fl oz4 hrs7
Cucumber beetle (adults), Japanese beetle (adults), Tortoise beetleCucumber beetle larvae (Diabrotica) are a serious pest of sweetpotato in LA and MS. Controlling adult cucumber beetles in areas with a history of Diabrotica damage can reduce damage to roots. Foliage feeding by beetles rarely causes economic loss, and control is not warranted unless defoliation is severe. Tortoise beetles are frequently present but rarely reach levels requiring treatment. Treat for tortoise beetles only if significant defoliation is observed.
pyrethroid, MOA 3A12 hrsSee table 5-9B for a list of registered pyrethroids and pre-harvest intervals.
carbaryl, MOA 1A
XLR Plus
2 qt12 hrs7Treat for tortoise beetles only if significant defoliation is observed. Tortoise beetles are frequently present but rarely reach levels requiring treatment.
Flea beetle, Wireworm, White grub bifenthrin, MOA 3A
(various) 2 EC
Soil application:
Foliar application:

9.6 to 19.2 fl oz
2.1 to 6.4 fl oz
21Apply as broadcast, preplant application to the soil and incorporate 4 to 6 inches prior to bed formation. This use has been demonstrated to control overwintered wireworm populations and reduce damage to roots at harvest. Chlorpyrifos will not control whitefringed beetle or other grubs that attack sweetpotato. Research has shown that best control is achieved when chlorpyrifos is applied as a preplant application incorporated 4 to 6 inches deep prior to bed formation, followed by 1 or more soil-directed incorporations of bifenthrin during routine cultivation. Bifenthrin should be directed onto each side of the bed from the drill to the middle of the furrow and incorporated with cultivating equipment set to throw soil toward the drill. The objective is to provide a barrier of treated soil that covers the bed and furrows. Foliar sprays of various insecticides that target adults to prevent egg laying have not been shown to provide any reduction in damage to roots by wireworm larvae at harvest.
chlorpyrifos, MOA 1B
(Lorsban) 15 G
(Lorsban) 4 E
(Lorsban Advanced)
13.5 lb
4 pt
4 pt
24 hrs125

(60 in NC for Lorsban Advanced only)
clothianidin MOA 4A
(Belay) 2.13 SL
12 fl oz12 hrs
imidacloprid MOA 4A
(Admire Pro) 4.6SC
10.5 fl oz
or
0.75 fl oz per 1,000 ft
3 days60 days (NC, LA)

125 days Elsewhere

Fruit fly (vinegar fly)pyrethrins, MOA 3A
(Pyrenone)
1 gal/100,000 cu ft12 hrsPostharvest application in storage. Apply as a space fog with a mechanical or thermal generator. Do not make more than 10 applications.
Sweetpotato weevilpyrethroid, MOA 3A12 hrsSee table 5-9B for a list of registered pyrethroids and pre-harvest intervals.
phosmet, MOA 1B
(Imidan) 70 W
1.33 lb5 days7
Thripsspinetoram, MOA 5
(Radiant) 1 SC
6 to 8 fl oz4 hrs7
Whitefringed beetlephosmet, MOA 1B
(Imidan) 70 W
1.33 lb5 days7Do not make more than 5 applications per season. Whitefringed beetle adults are active in July and August. Do not plant in fields with a recent history of whitefringed beetles.

South Carolina

Table 3. The below table has been adapted from the 2022 Southeastern US Vegetable Crop Handbook.

InsectInsecticide, Mode of Action Code, and FormulationAmount of Formulation Per AcreRestricted Entry Interval (REI)Pre Harvest Interval (PHI) (Days)Precautions and Remarks
Aphids, Leafhopper, WhiteflyAphids, leafhoppers, and whiteflies are rarely a problem.
clothianidin, MOA 4A
(Belay) 2.13 SC
Soil treatment
Foliar treatment


9 to 12 oz
2 to 3 fl oz
12 hrs
21
14
Soil application as an in-furrow or sidedress application. For side-dress applications, immediately cover with soil.
flonicamid, MOA 20D
(Beleaf) 50 SG
2 to 2.8 oz12 hrs7
flupyradifurone, MOA 4D
(Sivanto Prime) 1.67 SL
7.0 to 14.0 fl oz4 hrs7For aphids and leafhopper use 7.0 to 10.5 fluid ounces, for whitefly use 10.5 to 14.0 fluid ounces.
imidacloprid, MOA 4A
Foliar treatment
(Admire Pro) 4.6 F
(various) 1.6 F
Soil treatment
(Admire Pro) 4.6 F
(various) 1.6 F

1.2 fl oz
3.5 fl oz

4.4 fl oz
10.5 fl oz
12 hrs7


60
Two applications may be needed to control heavy populations. Allow 5 to 7 days between applications.
pymetrozine, MOA 9B
(Fulfill) 50 WDG
2.75 to 5.5 oz12 hrs14
pyrifluquinazon, MOA 9B
(PQZ) 1.87 EC
2.4 to 3.2 fl oz12 hrs1See label for rotational crop restrictions. Do not exceed 4.8 fl oz per acre per crop cycle.
thiamethoxam, MOA 4A
(Actara) 25 WDG
3 oz14Two applications of Actara may be needed to control heavy popu-lations. Allow 7 to 10 days between applications. Do not exceed a total of 6 ounces of Actara per crop per season
Armyworms, Looper, Corn earworm, HornwormDamaging armyworm and earworm infestations may occur in August or September. If significant infestations are present on foliage during harvest, larvae may feed on exposed roots.
chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28
(Coragen) 1.67 SC
3.5 to 7.5 fl oz4 hrs1Foliar application only on sweetpotato.
methoxyfenozide, MOA18
(Intrepid) 2 F
6 to 10 fl oz4 hrs7
novaluron, MOA 15
(Rimon) 0.83 EC
9 to 12 fl oz12 hrs14Do not make more than 2 applications per crop per season.
spinetoram, MOA 5
(Radiant) 1 SC
6 to 8 fl oz4 hrs7
spinosad MOA 5
(Blackhawk)
2.25 to 3.5 oz4 hrs7
viruses4 hrsSee Table 2-26 for virus-based insecticides effective against specific insects. ORMI listed.
Cucumber beetle (adults), Japanese beetle (adults), Tortoise beetleCucumber beetle larvae (Diabrotica) are a serious pest of sweetpotato in LA and MS. Controlling adult cucumber beetles in areas with a history of Diabrotica damage can reduce damage to roots. Foliage feeding by beetles rarely causes economic loss, and control is not warranted unless defoliation is severe. Tortoise beetles are frequently present but rarely reach levels requiring treatment. Treat for tortoise beetles only if significant defoliation is observed.
carbaryl, MOA 1A
(Sevin) XLR Plus
2 qt12 hrs7Treat for tortoise beetles only if significant defoliation is observed. Tortoise beetles are frequently present but rarely reach levels requiring treatment.
pyrethroids, MOA 3A12 hrsSee Table 2-25 A for a list of registered pyrethroids and pre-harvest intervals.
Flea beetle, Wireworm, White grub, Cucumber beetle larvaebifenthrin, MOA 3A
(various) 2 EC
9.6 to 19.2 fl oz12 hrs21Apply as broadcast, preplant application to the soil and incorporate 4 to 6 inches prior to bed formation. This use has been demonstrated to control overwintered wireworm populations and reduce damage to roots at har-vest. Bifenthrin should be directed onto each side of the bed from the drill to the middle of the furrow and incorporated with cultivating equipment set to throw soil toward the drill. The objective is to provide a barrier of treated soil that covers the bed and furrows. Foliar sprays of various in-secticides that target adults to prevent egg laying have not been shown to provide any reduction in damage to roots by wireworm larvae at harvest.
clothianidin MOA 4A
(Belay) 2.13
12 fl oz12 hrs
imidacloprid
(Admire Pro) 4.6 SC
10.5 fl oz or 0.75 fl oz per 1,000 ft3 days60 days
(NC, LA Only)

125 days
elsewhere
Fruit fly (vinegar fly)pyrethrins, MOA 3A
(Pyrenone)
1 gal.
100,00 cu ft
12 hrs-Postharvest application in storage. Apply as a space fog with a mechanical or thermal generator. Do not make more than 10 applications.
Sweetpotato weevilpyrethroid, MOA 3A12 hrsSee Table 2-25 A for a list of registered pyrethroids and pre-harvest intervals.
phosmet, MOA 1B
(Imidan) 70 W
1.33 lb5 days7Do not make more than five applications per season.
Thripsspinetoram, MOA 5
(Radiant) 1 SC
6 to 8 fl oz4 hrs7
Whitefringed beetlephosmet, MOA 1B
(Imidan) 70 W
1.33 lb5 days7Do not make more than five applications per season. Whitefringed beetle adults are active in July and August. Do not plant in fields with a recent history of whitefringed beetles. Limited to mechanical harvest only.

Louisiana

Table 4. The below table has been adapted from the 2022 Southeastern US Vegetable Crop Handbook.

InsectInsecticide, Mode of Action Code, and FormulationAmount of Formulation Per AcreRestricted Entry Interval (REI)Pre Harvest Interval (PHI) (Days)Precautions and Remarks
Aphids, Leafhopper, WhiteflyAphids, leafhoppers, and whiteflies are rarely a problem.
clothianidin, MOA 4A
(Belay) 2.13 SC
Soil treatment
Foliar treatment

9 to 12 oz
2 to 3 fl oz
12 hrs21
14
Soil application as an in-furrow or sidedress application. For side-dress applications, immediately cover with soil.
flonicamid, MOA 20D
(Beleaf) 50 SG
2 to 2.8 oz12 hrs7
flupyradifurone, MOA 4D
(Sivanto Prime) 1.67 SL
7.0 to 14.0 fl oz4 hrs7For aphids and leafhopper use 7.0 to 10.5 fluid ounces, for whitefly use 10.5 to 14.0 fluid ounces.
imidacloprid, MOA 4A
Foliar treatment
(Admire Pro) 4.6 F
(various) 1.6 F
Soil treatment
(Admire Pro) 4.6 F
(various) 1.6 F
1.2 fl oz
3.5 fl oz

4.4 fl oz
10.5 fl oz
12 hrs7


60
Two applications may be needed to control heavy populations. Allow 5 to 7 days between applications.
pymetrozine, MOA 9B
(Fulfill) 50 WDG
2.75 to 5.5 oz12 hrs14
pyrifluquinazon, MOA 9B
(PQZ) 1.87 EC
2.4 to 3.2 fl oz12 hrs1See label for rotational crop restrictions. Do not exceed 4.8 fl oz per acre per crop cycle.
thiamethoxam, MOA 4A
(Actara) 25 WDG
3 oz14Two applications of Actara may be needed to control heavy popu-lations. Allow 7 to 10 days between applications. Do not exceed a total of 6 ounces of Actara per crop per season
Armyworms, Looper, Corn earworm, HornwormDamaging armyworm and earworm infestations may occur in August or September. If significant infestations are present on foliage during harvest, larvae may feed on exposed roots.
chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28
(Coragen) 1.67 SC
3.5 to 7.5 fl oz4 hrs1Foliar application only on sweetpotato.
methoxyfenozide, MOA18
(Intrepid) 2 F
6 to 10 fl oz4 hrs7
novaluron, MOA 15
(Rimon) 0.83 EC
9 to 12 fl oz12 hrs14Do not make more than 2 applications per crop per season.
spinetoram, MOA 5
(Radiant) 1 SC
6 to 8 fl oz4 hrs7
spinosad MOA 5
(Blackhawk)
2.25 to 3.5 oz4 hrs7
viruses4 hrsSee Table 2-26 for virus-based insecticides effective against specific insects. ORMI listed.
Cucumber beetle (adults), Japanese beetle (adults), Tortoise beetleCucumber beetle larvae (Diabrotica) are a serious pest of sweetpotato in LA and MS. Controlling adult cucumber beetles in areas with a history of Diabrotica damage can reduce damage to roots. Foliage feeding by beetles rarely causes economic loss, and control is not warranted unless defoliation is severe. Tortoise beetles are frequently present but rarely reach levels requiring treatment. Treat for tortoise beetles only if significant defoliation is observed.
carbaryl, MOA 1A
(Sevin) XLR Plus
2 qt12 hrs7Treat for tortoise beetles only if significant defoliation is observed. Tortoise beetles are frequently present but rarely reach levels requiring treatment.
pyrethroids, MOA 3A12 hrsSee Table 2-25 A for a list of registered pyrethroids and pre-harvest intervals.
Flea beetle, Wireworm, White grub, Cucumber beetle larvaebifenthrin, MOA 3A
(various) 2 EC
9.6 to 19.2 fl oz12 hrs21Apply as broadcast, preplant application to the soil and incorporate 4 to 6 inches prior to bed formation. This use has been demonstrated to control overwintered wireworm populations and reduce damage to roots at har-vest. Bifenthrin should be directed onto each side of the bed from the drill to the middle of the furrow and incorporated with cultivating equipment set to throw soil toward the drill. The objective is to provide a barrier of treated soil that covers the bed and furrows. Foliar sprays of various in-secticides that target adults to prevent egg laying have not been shown to provide any reduction in damage to roots by wireworm larvae at harvest.
clothianidin MOA 4A
(Belay) 2.13
12 fl oz12 hrs
imidacloprid
(Admire Pro) 4.6 SC
10.5 fl oz or 0.75 fl oz per 1,000 ft3 days60 days
(NC, LA Only)

125 days
elsewhere
Fruit fly (vinegar fly)pyrethrins, MOA 3A
(Pyrenone)
1 gal.
100,00 cu ft
12 hrs-Postharvest application in storage. Apply as a space fog with a mechanical or thermal generator. Do not make more than 10 applications.
Sweetpotato weevilpyrethroid, MOA 3A12 hrsSee Table 2-25 A for a list of registered pyrethroids and pre-harvest intervals.
phosmet, MOA 1B
(Imidan) 70 W
1.33 lb5 days7Do not make more than five applications per season.
Thripsspinetoram, MOA 5
(Radiant) 1 SC
6 to 8 fl oz4 hrs7
Whitefringed beetlephosmet, MOA 1B
(Imidan) 70 W
1.33 lb5 days7Do not make more than five applications per season. Whitefringed beetle adults are active in July and August. Do not plant in fields with a recent history of whitefringed beetles. Limited to mechanical harvest only.

Mississippi

Tables 5-17. The below tables have been adapted from the MSU Extension Insect Control Guide for Agronomic Crops (2022).

Sweetpotato Weevil

InsecticideAmount of Formulation per AcrePounds Active Ingredient per AcreAcres 1 Gallon or 1 Pound Dry Will TreatPHI (days)Comments
Soil Application
bifenthrin (P)
Brigade 2EC


Brigade 2EC

9.6–19.2 oz
(at planting)

3.2–9.6 oz
(at layby)

0.15–0.30


0.05–0.15

13.3–6.7


40–13.3

21


21
bifenthrin (P) + imidacloprid (CN)
Brigadier 2SC

5.1–7.7 oz

-

25.1–16.6

21
carbaryl (C)
Sevin 4F

32–64 oz

1–2

4–2

7
clothianidin (CN)
Belay 2.13SC

12 oz

0.2

10.7

-
Foliar Treatments
β–cyfluthrin (P)
Baythroid XL 1EC

1.6–2.8 oz

0.013–0.022

80–45.7

0
bifenthrin (P)
Brigade 2EC

2.1–6.4 oz

0.033–0.10

60.6–20

21
chlorantraniliprole (D) + λ–cyhalothrin (P)
Besiege 1.25CS

6–9 oz

-

21.3–14.2

14
cyfluthrin (P)
Tombstone 2EC

1.6–2.8 oz

0.025–0.044

80–45.7

0
phosmet (OP)
Imidan 70WP

21.3 oz

0.93

0.75

7

Whitefly

InsecticideAmount of Formulation per AcrePounds Active Ingredient per AcreAcres 1 Gallon or 1 Pound Dry Will TreatPHI (days)Comments
Soil Application
imidacloprid (CN)
Admire Pro 4.6SC

7–10.5 oz

0.25–0.38

18.3–12.2

125
Foliar Treatments
bifenthrin (P) + imidacloprid (CN)
Brigadier 2SC

5.1–7.7 oz

-

25.1–16.6

21
flupyradifurone (BU)
Sivanto Prime 1.67

10.5–14.0 oz

0.14–0.18

12.2–9.1

7
imidacloprid (CN)
Admire Pro 4.6SC

1.2 oz

0.043

106.7

7
λ–cyhalothrin (P) + thiamethoxam (CN)
Endigo ZC 2.06CS

4.5 oz

-

28.4

14
novaluron (IGR)
Rimon 0.83EC

12 oz

0.078

10.7

14
spiromesifen (TA)
Oberon 4SC

4–8 oz

0.125–0.25

32–16

7
spirotetramat (TA)
Movento 2SC

4–5 oz

0.06–0.08

32–25.6

7
sulfoxaflor (SX)
Transform 50WG

2.0–2.25 oz

0.063–0.071

8–7.1

7

Flea Beetle

InsecticideAmount of Formulation per AcrePounds Active Ingredient per AcreAcres 1 Gallon or 1 Pound Dry Will TreatPHI (days)Comments
Soil Application
bifenthrin (P)
Brigade 2EC

Brigade 2EC

9.6–19.2 oz
(at planting)
3.2–9.6 oz
(at layby)

0.15–0.30

0.05–0.15

13.3–6.7

40–13.3

21

21
clothianidin (CN)
Belay 2.13SC

9–12 oz

0.15–0.2

14.2–10.7

-
ethoprop (OP)
Mocap 6EC

63–86 oz

3–4

2–1.5

-
Apply 2–3 weeks before planting.
imidacloprid (CN)
Admire Pro 4.6SC

7–10.5 oz

0.25–0.38

18.3–12.2

125
thiamethoxam (CN)
Platinum 2SC

5–8 oz

0.078–0.125

25.6–16

-
Foliar Treatments
acetamiprid (CN)
Assail 30SG

1.5–2.5 oz

0.028–0.047

10.7–6.4

7
β–cyfluthrin (P)
Baythroid XL 1EC

1.6–2.8 oz

0.013–0.022

80–45.7

0
bifenthrin (P)
Brigade 2EC

2.1–6.4 oz

0.033–0.10

60.6–20

21
bifenthrin (P) + imidacloprid (CN)
Brigadier 2SC

5.1–7.7 oz

-

25.1–16.6

21
bifenthrin (P) + Z-cypermethrin (P)
Hero 1.24EC

4.0–10.3 oz

-

32–12.4

21
21 days minimum between applications.
carbaryl (C)
Sevin 4F

32–64 oz

1–2

4–2

7
chlorantraniliprole (D) + λ-cyhalothrin (P)
Besiege 1.25SC


6–9 oz


-


21.3–14.2


14
clothianidin (CN)
Belay 2.13SC

2–3 oz

0.033–0.05

8–5.3

14
cyfluthrin (P)
Tombstone 2EC

1.6–2.8 oz

0.025–0.044

80–45.7

0
deltamethrin (P)
Delta Gold 1.5EC

1.5–2.4 oz

0.018–0.028

85.3–53.3

3
imidacloprid (CN)
Admire Pro 4.6SC

1.2 oz

0.043

106.7

7
imidacloprid (CN) + β-cyfluthrin (P)
Leverage 360 3SC

2.4–2.8 oz

-

53.3–45.7

7
λ–cyhalothrin (P)
Warrior II 2.08CS

1.28–1.92 oz

0.02–0.03

100–66.7

7
λ–cyhalothrin (P) + thiamethoxam (CN)
Endigo ZC 2.06CS


3.5–4.5 oz


-


36.6–28.4


14
thiamethoxam (CN)
Actara 25WDG

3 oz

0.047

5.3

14
thiamethoxam (CN) + chlorantraniprole (D)
Voliam Flexi 40WDG


4 oz


-


32


14
Z–cypermethrin (P)
Mustang Max 0.8EC

1.76–4 oz

0.011–0.025

72.7–32

1

Aphid

InsecticideAmount of Formulation per AcrePounds Active Ingredient per AcreAcres 1 Gallon or 1 Pound Dry Will TreatPHI (days)Comments
Soil Application
clothianidin (CN)
Belay 2.13SC

9–12 oz

0.15–0.2

14.2–10.7

-
imidacloprid (CN)
Admire Pro 4.6SC

7–10.5 oz

0.25–0.38

18.3–12.2

125
Foliar Treatments
acetamiprid (CN)
Assail 30SG

2.5–4 oz

0.047–0.075

6.4–4.0

7
bifenthrin (P) + imidacloprid (CN)
Brigadier 2SC

5.1–7.7 oz

-

25.1–16.6

21
chlorantraniliprole (D) + λ-cyhalothrin (P)
Besiege 1.25CS

6–9 oz

-

21.3–14.2

14
clothianidin (CN)
Belay 2.13SC

2–3 oz

0.033–0.05

8–5.3

14
flonicamid (PC)
Beleaf 50SG

2.0–2.8 oz

0.062–0.089

8–5.7

7
flupyradifurone (Bu)
Sivanto Prime 1.67L

10.5–14.0 oz

0.14–0.18

12.2–9.1

7
imidacloprid (CN)
Admire Pro 4.6SC

1.2 oz

0.043

106.7

7
imidacloprid (CN) + β-cyfluthrin (P)
Leverage 360 3SC

2.4–2.8 oz

-

53.3–45.7

7
λ-cyhalothrin (P) + thiamethoxam (CN)
Endigo ZC 2.06CS

4.5 oz

-

28.4

14
pymetrozine (PC)
Fulfill 50WDG

2.75–5.5 oz

0.086–0.17

5.8–2.9

14
pyrifluquinazon (PC)
PQZ 1.86SC

2.4–3.2 oz

0.035–0.047

53.3–40

14
spirotetramat (TA)
Movento 2SC

4–5 oz

0.06–0.08

32–25.6

7
sulfoxaflor (CN)
Transform 50WG

0.75–1.5 oz

0.023–0.047

21.3–10.7

7
thiamethoxam (CN)
Actara 25WDG

3 oz

0.047

5.3

14
thiamethoxam (CN) + chlorantraniprole (D)
Voliam Flexi 40WDG

4 oz

-

32

14

White Grub/May-June Beetle

InsecticideAmount of Formulation per AcrePounds Active Ingredient per AcreAcres 1 Gallon or 1 Pound Dry Will TreatPHI (days)Comments
Soil Application (for larval control)
bifenthrin (P)
Brigade 2EC

Brigade 2EC

9.6–19.2 oz
(at planting)
3.2–9.6 oz
(at layby)

0.15–0.30

0.05–0.15

13.3–6.7

40–13.3

21

21
clothianidin (CN)
Belay 2.13SC

12 oz

0.2

10.7

-
ethoprop (OP)
Mocap 6EC

63–86 oz

3–4

2–1.5

-
Apply 2–3 weeks before planting.
Foliar Treatments (for adult control)
bifenthrin (P)
Brigade 2EC

2.1–6.4 oz

0.033–0.10

60.6–20

21
bifenthrin (P) + imidacloprid (CN)
Brigadier 2SC

5.1–7.7 oz

-

25.1–16.6

21
bifenthrin (P) + Z-cypermethrin (P)
Hero 1.24EC

4.0–10.3 oz

-

32–12.4

21
21 days minimum between applications.
chlorantraniliprole (D) + bifenthrin (P)
Elevest 2.22SC


5.6–9.6 oz


0.098–0.167


22.9–13.3


1
clothianidin (CN)
Belay 2.13SC

2–3 oz

0.033–0.05

60.6–42.7

14
phosmet (OP)
Imidan 70W

21.3 oz

0.93

0.75

7
Provides suppression only.

Rootworm/Cucumber Beetle

InsecticideAmount of Formulation per AcrePounds Active Ingredient per AcreAcres 1 Gallon or 1 Pound Dry Will TreatPHI (days)Comments
Soil Application (for larval control)
bifenthrin (P)
Brigade 2EC

Brigade 2EC

9.6–19.2 oz
(at planting)
3.2–9.6 oz
(at layby)

0.15–0.30

0.05–0.15

13.3–6.7

40–13.3

21

21
ethoprop (OP)
Mocap 6EC

63–86 oz

3–4

2–1.5

-
Apply 2–3 weeks before planting
Foliar Treatments (for adult control)
acetamiprid (CN)
Assail 30SG

1.5–4 oz

0.028–0.075

10.7–4

7
β–cyfluthrin (P)
Baythroid XL 1EC

1.6–2.8 oz

0.013–0.022

80–45.7

0
bifenthrin (P)
Brigade 2EC

2.1–6.4 oz

0.033–0.10

60.6–20

21
bifenthrin (P) + imidacloprid (CN)
Brigadier 2SC

5.1–7.7 oz

-

25.1–16.6

21
bifenthrin (P) + Z-cypermethrin (P)
Hero 1.25EC

4.0–10.3 oz

-

32–12.4

21
21 days minimum between applications.
carbaryl (C)
Sevin 4F

32–64 oz

1–2

4–2

7
chlorantraniliprole (D) + bifenthrin (P)
Elevest 2.22SC

5.6–9.6 oz

-

22.9–13.3

1
chlorantraniliprole (D) + λ-cyhalothrin (P)
Besiege 1.25CS


6–9 oz


-


21.3–14.2


14
λ–cyhalothrin (P)
Warrior II 2.08CS

1.28–1.92 oz

0.02–0.03

100–66.7

7
λ–cyhalothrin (P) + thiamethoxam (CN)
Endigo ZC 2.06CS


4.0–4.5 oz


-


32–28.4


14
phosmet (OP)
Imidan 70W

21.3 oz

0.93

0.75

7
Z–cypermethrin (P) Mustang Maxx 0.8EC
1.76–4 oz

0.011–0.025

72.7–32

1

Wireworm/Click Beetle

InsecticideAmount of Formulation per AcrePounds Active Ingredient per AcreAcres 1 Gallon or 1 Pound Dry Will TreatPHI (days)Comments
Soil Application (for larval control)
bifenthrin (P)
Brigade 2EC

Brigade 2EC

9.6–19.2 oz
(at planting)
3.2–9.6 oz
(at layby)

0.15–0.30

0.05–0.15

13.3–6.7

40–13.3

21

21
clothianidin (CN)
Belay 2.13SC

12 oz

0.2

10.7

-
Provides suppression only.
ethoprop (OP)
Mocap 6EC

63–86 oz

3–4

2–1.5

-
Apply 2–3 weeks before planting.
Foliar Treatments (for adult control)
bifenthrin (P)
Brigade 2EC

2.1–6.4 oz

0.033–0.10

60.6–20

21
chlorantraniliprole (D) + bifenthrin (P)
Elevest 2.22SC


5.6–9.6 oz


-


22.9–13.3


1
phosmet (OP)
Imidan 70W

21.3 oz

0.93

0.75

7
Provides suppression only.

Cutworm

InsecticideAmount of Formulation per AcrePounds Active Ingredient per AcreAcres 1 Gallon or 1 Pound Dry Will TreatPHI (days)Comments
β-cyfluthrin (P)
Baythroid XL 1EC

0.8–1.6 oz

0.006–0.013

160–80

0
bifenthrin (P)
Brigade 2EC

2.1–6.4 oz

0.033–0.10

60.6–20

21
bifenthrin (P) + Z-cypermethrin (P)
Hero 1.24EC

2.6–6.1 oz

-

49–21

21
21 days minimum between applications.
chlorantraniliprole (D) + bifenthrin (P)
Elevest 2.22SC


5.6–9.6 oz


-


22.9–13.3


1
chlorantraniliprole (D) + λ-cyhalothrin (P)
Besiege 1.25CS


5–8 oz


-


25.6–16


14
cyfluthrin (P)
Tombstone 2EC

0.8–1.6 oz

0.013–0.025

160–80

0
deltamethrin (P)
Delta Gold 1.5EC

1.0–2.4 oz

0.012–0.028

125–53.6

3
imidacloprid (CN) + β-cyfluthrin (P)
Leverage 360 3SC

2.4–2.8 oz

-

53.3–45.7

7
λ–cyhalothrin (P)
Warrior II 2.08CS

0.96–1.60 oz

0.015–0.025

133–80

7
λ–cyhalothrin (P) + thiamethoxam (CN)
Endigo ZC 2.06CS


3.5–4.5 oz


-


36.6–28.4


14
Z-cypermethrin (P)
Mustang Max 0.8EC

1.28–4 oz

0.008–0.025

100–32

1

Tortoise Beetle

InsecticideAmount of Formulation per AcrePounds Active Ingredient per AcreAcres 1 Gallon or 1 Pound Dry Will TreatPHI (days)Comments
carbaryl (C)
Sevin 4F

32–64 oz

1–2

4–2

7
chlorantraniliprole (D) + λ-cyhalothrin (P)
Besiege 1.25CS

6–9 oz

-

21.3–14.2

14
λ–cyhalothrin (P)
Warrior II 2.08CS

1.28–1.92 oz

0.02–0.03

100–66.7

7
λ-cyhalothrin (P) + thiamethoxam (CN)
Endigo ZC 2.06CS

4.0–4.5

-

32–28.4

14

Armyworm and Looper

InsecticideAmount of Formulation per AcrePounds Active Ingredient per AcreAcres 1 Gallon or 1 Pound Dry Will TreatPHI (days)Comments
bifenthrin (P) + imidacloprid (CN)
Brigadier 2SC

5.1–7.7 oz

-

25.1–16.6

21
bifenthrin (P) + Z-cypermethrin (P)
Hero 1.24EC

4–10.3 oz

-

32–12.4

21
21 days minimum between applications.
chlorantraniprole (D)
Coragen 1.67 SC
Vantacor 5SC

3.5–7.5 oz
1.2–2.5 oz

0.045–0.098
0.047–0.098

36.6–17.1
106.6–51.2

1
1
chlorantraniliprole (D) + bifenthrin (P)
Elevest 2.22SC

5.6–9.6 oz

-

22.9–13.3

1
chlorantraniliprole (D) + λ-cyhalothrin (P)
Besiege 1.25CS


6–9 oz


-


21.3–14.2


14
deltamethrin (P)
Delta Gold 1.5 EC

1.5–2.4 oz

0.018–0.028

85.3–53.6

3
λ–cyhalothrin (P)
Warrior II 2.08CS

1.28–1.92 oz

0.02–0.03

100–66.7

7
λ–cyhalothrin (P) + thiamethoxam (CN)
Endigo ZC 2.06CS


4.0–4.5 oz


-


32–28.4


14
methoxyfenozide (IGR)
Intrepid 2F

6–10 oz

0.094–0.156

21.3–12.8

7
methoxyfenozide (IGR) + spinetoram (SPN)
Intrepid Edge 3SC


4.5–12 oz


-


28.4–10.7


7
novaluron (IGR)
Rimon 0.83 EC

9–12 oz

0.058–0.078

14.2–10.7

14
spinetoram (SPN)
Radiant 1SC

6–8 oz

0.05–0.06

21.3–16

7
spinosad (SPN)
Blackhawk 36WG

2.25–3.5 oz

0.05–0.08

7.1–4.6

7
Z–cypermethrin (P)
Mustang Max 0.8EC

3.2–4 oz

0.02–0.025

40–32

1

Whitefringed Beetle

InsecticideAmount of Formulation per AcrePounds Active Ingredient per AcreAcres 1 Gallon or 1 Pound Dry Will TreatPHI (days)Comments
Foliar Treatment
bifenthrin (P)
Brigade 2EC

2.1–6.4 oz

0.033–0.10

60.6–20

21
bifenthrin (P) + imidacloprid (CN)
Brigadier 2SC

5.1–7.7 oz

-

25.1–16.6

21
carbaryl (C)
Sevin 4F

32–64 oz

1–2

4–2

7
chlorantraniliprole (D) + bifenthrin (P)
Elevest 2.22SC

5.6–9.6 oz

-

22.9–13.3

1
phosmet (OP)
Imidan 70 W

21.3 oz

0.93

0.75

7
Z–cypermethrin (P)
Mustang Max 0.8EC

1.76–4 oz

0.011–0.025

72.7–32

1

Thrips

InsecticideAmount of Formulation per AcrePounds Active Ingredient per AcreAcres 1 Gallon or 1 Pound Dry Will TreatPHI (days)Comments
Soil Application
imidacloprid (CN)
Admire Pro 4.6 SC

7–10.5 oz

0.25–0.38

18.3–12.2

125
Foliar Treatment
λ–cyhalothrin (P)
Warrior II 2.08CS

1.28–1.92 oz

0.02–0.03

100–66.7

7
Does not control western flower thrips.
λ–cyhalothrin (P) + thiamethoxam (CN)
Endigo ZC 2.06CS


4.0–4.5 oz


-


32–28.4


14
spinetoram (SPN)
Radiant 1SC

6–8 oz

0.05–0.06

21.3–16

7
spinosad (SPN)
Blackhawk 36WG

2.25–3.5 oz

0.05–0.08

7.1–4.6

3

Storage Insects

InsecticideAmount of Formulation per AcrePounds Active Ingredient per AcreAcres 1 Gallon or 1 Pound Dry Will TreatPHI (days)Comments
Sweetpotato Weevils
phosmet (OP)
Imidan 5D

4 oz/50 lb

-

-

-
Apply to stored sweetpotatoes in areas of suspected sweetpotato weevil infestation as a preventive treatment.
Fruit Flies
pyrethrins1 gal/ 100,000 cu ft---Refer to label for proper dilution. Space spray for stored sweetpotatoes.

California

Table 18. The below table has been adapted from information provided by Dr. Scott Stoddard.

Crop InsectInsecticide and FormulationProduct TypeApplication MethodRate/AcreSchedule and Remarks
Wireworms, false wireworms, flea beetles and grubs (Limonius spp., Diabrotica spp.)1,3-dichloropropene
(Telone)
FumigantShank applications at 18 – 24” into moist soil followed by surface sealing. All applications subject to township caps and time of application restrictions. Fumigation management plan required.10 – 12 gpa typical. See label for specific guidelines.Primarily used for nematode management, applications made in fall or spring will also reduce wireworms.
Methyldithiocarbamate
(Metam sodium, metam potassium)
FumigantShank applications permitted. 9” row spacing at 3”, 6”, and 12” depth into moist soil, followed by soil sealing with light disc or ring-roller.

May be applied through sprinklers. Water seal required.

Flood applications.
42 – 45 gpa. See label for specific guidelines.


60 to 75 gpa
Permit conditions for pre-plant applications subject to specific county Agriculture Commissioner guidelines. Minimum 100 ft buffers to occupied structures. Fumigation management plan required.
Ethoprop 
(Mocap 15G)
Granular nematicide
and insecticide
Pre-plant incorporated 2-3 weeks before transplanting and incorporated 4” deep. Banded applications to the row.20 – 26 lbs/ARestricted use material, limited to 1 application per season.
Chlorpyrifos (Lorsban),
granular formulations only
Granular insecticidePre-plant incorporated 2 weeks before transplanting and incorporate.13.5 lbs/ALimited availability. Only granular formulations allowed under current use restrictions. PHI = 125 days.
Clothianidin
(Belay)
Liquid insecticidePre-plant incorporated; post plant chemigation through the drip prior to 50% canopy coverage.12 oz/ALimited to maximum 12 oz/A per year.
Bifenthrin
(Brigade 2 EC)
Liquid insecticideLayby applications sprayed to the soil surface near the plants and mechanically incorporated.3.2 – 9.6 fl oz/AFor suppression of wireworms, rootworms, and white grubs. Sprays do not directly target adults. Has not been evaluated for efficacy under California growing conditions for these pests.
Aphids. Various species, including green peach aphids, Myzus persicaeAcetamiprid
(Assail)
InsecticideFoliar application when pest observed.2.5 – 4.0 oz/AManagement typically needed only in the hotbeds. Adjust rates correspondingly to square feet.
Lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole
(Besiege)
InsecticideFoliar applications when pest observed6.0 – 9.0 fl oz/ANIS or COC adjuvant may improve performance.
Flonicamid
(Beleaf 50 SG)
InsecticideBegin treatments before aphids reach damaging levels.
2.0 – 2.8 oz/AAllow minimum of 7 days between applications.
Clothianidin
(Belay)
InsecticideFoliar application when target threshold has been reached (>5 aphids per leaf).2.0 – 3.0 oz/ARates much lower for aphid management in hotbeds than for wireworms. Adjust accordingly to square feet.
Spirotetramat
(Movento)
InsecticideFoliar applications when there is sufficient leaf cover for uptake and movement within the plant. 4 – 5 oz/ASystemic insecticide. Must be tank mixed with spray additive/adjuvant. Use sufficient water volume to achieve thorough coverage of foliage.
Flupyradifurone
(Silvanto Prime)
InsecticideFoliar7.0 – 14.0 oz/AHigher rates needed for green peach aphids.
Thiamethoxam (Actara, Platinum)InsecticideFoliar3.0 oz/ASystemic insecticide. Use sufficient water volume to achieve thorough coverage of foliage.
Pymetrozine
(Fulfill)
InsecticideFoliar2.75 oz/AApply when aphids first appear before building to damaging levels.
Pyrethrins
(PyGanic 1.4EC)
InsecticideFoliar contact.Label rates.OMRI certified. Short residual material.
Insecticidal soap
(M-Pede) and oils
Insecticide/miticideFoliar contact.2.5 oz/galOMRI certified. Contact insecticide with smothering and barrier effects.
Biologicals:
Chromobacterium subtsugae
(Grandevo)
WSGFoliar contact.3 – 4 TBSP per 1000 sq ft.OMRI certified.
Armyworms, Western yellowstripe armyworm, loopers, corn earworms, hornwormsMethoxyfenozide
(Intrepid 2F)
InsecticideFoliar6-10 fl oz/AEffective on beet armyworm and Western yellowstripe armyworm larvae. Apply when feeding damage >30% foliage loss on more than 1/3 of field, or feeding damage noticed on exposed roots. 7 day PHI.
Methoxyfenozide + spinetoram
(Intrepid Edge)
InsecticideFoliar4.5 – 12 fl oz/AGroup 5 and Group 18 combination. Rotate to different classes after 2 consecutive applications.
Spinosad
(Success)
InsecticideFoliar3 – 6 fl oz/AReduced efficacy on western yellowstripe armyworm. Group 5 material, rotate to another insecticide class after 2 consecutive applications.
Chlorantraniliprole
(Coragen)
InsecticideFoliar3.5 – 7.5 fl oz/AFoliar applications only for sweetpotatoes. Group 28 material, make no more than 3 applications per season.
Novaluron
(Rimon)
InsecticideFoliar6 – 12 fl oz/AGroup 15. 14 day PHI. Late season applications effective on leafminers and
whitefly.
Pyrethrins
(bifenthrin [Warrior], lambda-cyhalothrin)
InsecticideFoliarSee label.Quick knockdown contact insecticides, Group 3A.
Spinosad
(Entrust)
InsecticideFoliar1 – 2 oz/AOMRI certified. Group 5 material, rotate to another insecticide class after 2 consecutive applications.
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt: Dipel, Xentari, many others)InsecticideFoliarSee label; rate changes per formulation and strain.OMRI certified. Best results with higher water application rates (50 gpa).
Morningglory leafminersNovaluron
(Rimon)
InsecticideFoliar6 – 12 fl oz/AGroup 15. One of the few products with efficacy on this pest, but usually needed only on very late season fields or field edges.
Whiteflies, leafhoppersFlupyradifurone (Silvanto Prime)InsecticideFoliar10.0 – 14 oz/ATypically, chemical control is not needed. Higher rates needed for white flies as compared to aphids.
Novaluron
(Rimon)
InsecticideFoliar12 fl oz/AGroup 15. Max 2 applications for whitefly management if needed in late season fields.
Mealy bugsPyrethrinsInsecticideFoggerSee label.Post harvest only inside of storage buildings, typically long term storage on certain varieties.
Fruit flies and gnatsPyrethrins
(Pyrenone)
InsecticideFoggerSee label.Post harvest only inside of storage buildings. Excessive fruit flies indicate a decay problem.

The use of brand names in this publication does not imply endorsement by NC State University or N.C. A&T State University of the products or services named nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned.
Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included in this publication as a convenience to the reader. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in this publication does not imply endorsement by NC State University or N.C. A&T State University nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. Individuals who use agricultural chemicals are responsible for ensuring that the intended use complies with current regulations and conforms to the product label. Be sure to obtain current information about usage regulations and examine a current product label before applying any chemical. For assistance in North Carolina, contact your local N.C. Cooperative Extension county center.